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Research program 2

Research program (October 2014)

Research articles during 2014 with grant contribution from the Pandora-Foundation for Independent Research:
1. Hardell L, Carlberg M. Das Hirntumorrisiko im Zusammenhang mit der Nutzung von Mobil- und Schnurlostelefonen. In: Langzeitrisiken des Mobil- und Kommunikationsfunks (Richter K, Ludwig P). Würzburg, Festung Marienberg, 5 April 2014. S. 6-21.
2. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH. Mobile phones and cancer: Next steps. Epidemiology. 2014;25(4):617-618.
3. Hardell L, Carlberg M. Long-term mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma. Epidemiology. 2014;25(5):778.
4. Hardell L, Carlberg M. Mobile and Cordless Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk. In: Rosch (ed) Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine. In press.
6. Carlberg M, Hardell L Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11:10790-10805; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010790.
7. Hardell L, Carlberg M. Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma - Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. Pathophysiology 2014, in press.
8. Carlberg M, Hardell L. Pooled analysis of Swedish case-control studies 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 on meningioma risk associated with use of mobile and cordless phones. Submitted.

Priorities for further work:
Risk factors for brain tumours, especially glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma – especially regarding wireless phones and including environmental agents

A. The aim of the investigation is to make further analyses on our case-control studies during the time periods 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 on use of wireless phones (mobile phones and cordless phones; DECT) and the risk for glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. In addition also based on questionnaire data information on different occupations and agents will be analysed as potential risk factors for brain tumours.
For these time periods, in total 3,563 cases (patients; 3 with both a benign and a malignant tumour) with brain tumours have answered the questionnaire. Of these 1,498 were diagnosed with a malignant brain tumour, mostly glioma (n=1,380). In total 2,068 cases with a benign brain tumour were included, mostly meningioma (n=1,625), or acoustic neuroma (n=316).
Exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to initiation and promotion/progression stages of brain tumour genesis are analysed. Interaction between different occupations/agents and use of wireless phones will be studied. Bioelectromagnetic research reveals evidence of joint actions at cell membranes of chemical cancer promoters and environmental electromagnetic fields.
This study is expected to give further information on use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk including other risk factors and potential interaction between different exposures.

B. Using the same material possible differences in the carcinogenic impact of radiation from the various sources (generations) of mobile phones the users are exposed to will be studied.
The first generation in Sweden was analogue phones (NMT 450 MHz 1981-2007; NMT 900 MHz 1986-2000) with an output power of 1 W, followed by the 2nd generation GSM phones (2G) with either 900 or 1800 MHz frequency and with a pulsed output power. The mean output power was of the order of tens of mW. In the 3rd generation phones (3G: UMTS) the output is more to be characterized as amplitude modulated than pulsed and the output power is of the order of tens of µW. The type of mobile phone was recorded and checked by the prefix for the phone number; 010 for analogue phones and 07 for digital phones (2G, 3G).
Use of cordless desktop phones was covered by similar questions; years, average daily use, use of a hands-free device, and preferred ear. Use of the wireless phone was referred to as ipsilateral (>50% of the time) or contralateral (<50% of the time) in relation to tumour side. The same method was also applied for the control group; the subjects were assigned the same ‘tumour’ side as the respective case to the matched control.
This part of the study is expected to give further information on the brain tumour risk (glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma) associated with different types of wireless phones including e.g., latency (time from first use until tumour diagnosis), cumulative exposure (number of hours) and potential synergistic effects between the different types of wireless phones.

C. Measurements of radiofrequency and other fields in the environment using EME Spy 200.
There is a massive increase in the use of wireless devices in the society. Especially the use in schools and preschools is of large concern. No one denies that bringing high-speed connectivity to schools is important. But it can be a wired connection and does not have to be Wi-Fi. Radiofrequency radiation has been classified as a Possible Human Carcinogen (Group 2B) by the World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer since 2011. Current health warnings from international science and public health experts, see for example ( Public concern is reasonably justified and is already high.
Few measurements exist of the daily total exposure among school children and young adults. Results of such measurements would promote the scientific debate on health risks and the exposure may be related to adverse biological effects based on laboratory studies.
EMF Spy 200 is a new device aimed at continuous measurement of electromagnetic field exposure. It includes FM, TV3, TETRA, TV4 & 5, WiFi 5G, LTE 800, GSM, DCS, DECT, UMTS, WiFi 2G, LTE 2600, WiMax. I Swedish schools 5.2 GHz Wi-Fi nets are usually used. Thus it is important to cover such exposure. EMF Spy 200 includes that frequency.
First a pilot project will be performed to investigate the possibility for more large scale studies. This part includes also the purchase of EME Spy 200.

Study group
Principal investigator: Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD, Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro, Sweden.E-mail: (oncology, epidemiology)
Co-workers: Michael Carlberg, MSc, Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro, Sweden. E-mail: (statistics)
Fredrik Söderqvist, PhD, DmedSc, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, County Council of Västmanland, SE-721 89 Västerås, Sweden. E-mail: (epidemiology)
Mikko Ahonen, PhD, Researcher, University of Tampere, School of Information Sciences, INFIM, Kanslerinrinne 1, Pinni B, 2121B, 33014 University of Tampere, Finland
E-mail: (occupational exposure, dosimetry)
Tarmo Koppel, PhD candidate, Researcher, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia. E-mail: (occupational exposure, dosimetry)

Budget one year
Statistician 7 months = 38 000 Euro
Experienced researcher 4 months = 14 000 Euro
Expenses (meetings, publication cost etc) = 2 000 Euro
University overhead 18.2 % = 9 800 Euro
Total = 63 800 Euro

Lennart Hardell

is professor of oncology at the University Hospital in Örebro, Sweden. Most of his research has been on risk factors for cancer. Examples are the exposure to pesticides, herbicides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), brominated flame-retardants and other organic pollutants. During recent years he and his co-workers have studied use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours.